Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Greta Garbo: John Gilbert

Greta Garbo: John Gilbert: Greta Garbo Silent Film Greta Garbo John Gilbert John Gilbert

Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo Biography Films Photos: Greta Garbo in Wild Orchids (Sidney Franklin, 1929...: Motion Picture News during 1929 quietly reported, "Clarence Brown will direct Greta Garbo in Heat for M. G.M.", later that mo...

Scott Lord
Scott Lord

Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo Biography Films Photos: Sven Gustafson screenwriter, Europa 1942-1948:      While Alva, apart from appearing as an extra with sister Greta for the Swedish Silent film director John Brunius, only made one screen ...

Greta Garbo Biography Films Photos: Greta Garbo

Greta Garbo Biography Films Photos: Greta Garbo: Greta Garbo Silent Film Greta Garbo Greta Garbo

Saturday, June 10, 2017

Garbo


Greta Garbo
To read the revised review of the silent films of Greta Garbo please visit the new version of this page at Scott Lord on the silent film of Greta Garbo. If any biography of Greta Garbo is added to this page, I would like it to be only after this information on this page is transferred to the respective pages on the individual silent films of Greta Garbo, most often due to the demands of chronology and the size of the individual pages and how they may best edited.
     To embark on 2017, I just finished a two day correspondence with biographer Eve Golden, who was kind enough to return my letter. It has been over a decade since I received a letter from Leatrice Joy Fountain, so I was excited that something came into my mailbox about photographer Ruth Harriet Loiuse.  The author Golden, sadly wrote that there will be "no more books for me" and that the cost of preparing a biography exceeds how profitable it might be, and yet she has already published several fascinating volumes and I will still keep my eyes open for her work. She highly recommends the work of author Robert Dance.
Recently biographers have sent it to legend that photographer Arnold Genthe had purported that his photographs were personally sent by Greta Garbo to director Victor Seastrom at the M.G.M studio to favor a view that It was Ruth Harriet Louise who was more intrumental in the career and publicity of Greta Garbo In any event the photographs that Genthe later took of director Mauritz Stiller are still available to the public.
Biographer Norman Zierold has written that Garbo's plasticity made it possible for her to relect the fantasies of her screen audiences; in this sense she functioned as a recepticle for the emotions of others." In keeping with the Greta Garbo that was nearly unknown to movie audiences for her personal life offscreen and had lurked in the shadows of movie theaters as a recluse after her retirement as though she could at anytime be sitting right beside any of us during without anyone knowing during a movie house screening of one of her films while as spectators we made identifications with each interpellated nuance, I added, "These emotional structures are created within each particular film, often by subject and spectator positioning, the viewer and the film's other characters in relation to the body of the actress, as when her body within the frame creates space between two characters in front of the camera, isolating them near a specific visual motif, or when Garbo briefly moves into the emotion of solitude." It began, "By contrast, the value of the silent film that Greta Garbo made in Hollywood is sentimental. The were melodramas made after Greta Garbo was discovered in Europe," and, after giving a brief filmography of the films with the description of The Kiss (Kyssen, Feyeder, seven reels, 1929) being "one of her most beautiful films in that it is one of her most melodramatic" it added that "each film can bee seen only for the being reminded of having first seen each of the films and the darkened room where the decades from the long past can flicker into intrigues and adventures." My Silent Swedish Film webpage, which covered from the turn of century to the advent of sound, was a Geocities webpage. It was also, while in part a filmography of silent film of the Swedish directors of Svenska Bio and Svenska Filmindustri,Mauritz Stiller, Victor Sjostrom, John Brunius and Georg af Klerker, my biography of the actress Greta Garbo. On a sheet of revision tonight I added that "whether one person is watching an old Greta Garbo movie on television while the other is reading, waiting for the other to retire for the evening, with each film, and with each screening, Garbo, like Anna-Lena Hemstrom, who portrays an actress who gradually, surrendering to fantasy believes herself to be each of the characters Greta Garbo played on screen in The Perfect Murder (Det Perfekte Mord, (Eva Isaksen) reintroduces herself to us and in each different characterization is foremost a fashion model before us; Greta Garbo is in a close-up". And yet there is now something more mystical to the ghost of Garbo for any, and maybe every reviewer of of Eva Isaksen's suspense film knowing that in Stockholm, near the Calle Flygare theater, there perhaps may be a young actress named Ottiliana Rolandsson who has left a screening of the film Queen Christina with the words "I am Greta Garbo" slowly forming silently on her lips, and in her hands a copy of a play. I still have a love for silent film, which skyrocketed after having looked at The Last Tycoon and The Garden of Eden; Photoplay magazine of 1927 mentions Fitzgerald being in the process of writing an original screenplay for Constance Talmadge, it later reviewing his adapted work, "Fitzgerald's novel, with its unscrupulous hero, violates some pet screen traditions." The silent film is in fact a deepening of the novel as an art form. Harvard Film has a free series of screenings open to the public at the University; if you rebegin arbitrarily at present, in the here and now, the screenings of silent film are still ongoing and continuing; it has in the past has included The Joyless Street (Die Freudlosse Gasse (G.W. Pabst 1925); my copy of the film I no longer have (my former mentor had a yardsale or something or other). Previous screenings have included Danish film star, Asta Nielsen Tragedy of the Street (Dirnetragodre, Bruno Rahn, 1927). Evidently, The Great Train Robbery (Porter,1903) was still being shown in theaters as late as 1926, added to the feature then playing, whereas it wasn't untill Hamlet (Gade, 1920) that sex symbol Asta Nielsen was introduced to mainstream audiences in the United States. Is it possible that when Greta Garbo  visited the home of Basil Rathbone in the masquerade costume of Hamlet, it was a tribute, or nod, to Danish Silent Film star Asta Nielsen? The 1922 film The Beautiful and the Damned directed by William A. Sieter/SydneyFranklin and starring Marie Prevost, if a film accurately reported as being unavailbable for screening, or or the 1926 film The Great Gatsby directed by Herbert Brenon and starring Lois Wilson- within the world of Lost Films, Found Magazines, there are no existant copies of either film, our knowledge of them and curiousity is left for stills taken during the time period; there are no vaults that exist. Both Anna Karenina (J. Gordon Edwards, 1915, five reels), starring Betty Nansen, Mabel Allen and Stella Hammerstein, and The Scarlet Letter (Carl Harbaugh, 1917) starring Mary Martin, are lost, both filmed by Fox Film. When compared to the Fox films starring Theda Bara, Anna Karenina was not particularly a widely publicized, or exploited, film at the time, but it sported a photoplay scripted by Clara S. Beranger. Movie Pictorial Magazine in 1915 in fact compared and contrasted the two actresses in the same article, much like journalists would later do with Garbo and Dietrich, the title reading, "Betty Nansen Theda Bara-The Dsitinguished Scandinavian Actress and the Chic Paraisienne Secured for Feature Films in America" . Moving Picture World reported in 1915 Betty Nansen in Montreal- Famous Danish Actress Visits City to Get Snow Scenes for Anna Karenina Film, the accompanying text to include, "According to the script, a ski meet is held in which the hero competes with a Swedish champion. As there are many followers of the sport locally, and champions to boot, Mr Edwards secured some interesting film." The entire Moving Picture World review  from the Spring of 1915 is as follows, "The premier of the first Fox offering with Betty Nansen, the great Danish actress was given on March 30. The picture, Tolstoi's Anna Karenina proved worthy of this audience's closest attention, although by remarks behind this reviewer, it was plain some were losing the quality of Nansen's restrained and remarkably powerful acting. There was some laughter, strange to say, except that perhaps the picture's meaning was over the heads of a few. There were two weak places in the cast, but this did not affect the result of it as a whole. It is a story of passion, but clean and powerful, a picture eminently fit for contemplation of grown human minds." "The film  was adverised as, "The story of a woman who dared. A Photoplay that stirs and thrills. Holds a grip that never relaxes." J. Gordon Edwards cast Betty Nansen i a second adaptation of the novels of Tolstoy that year with the film A Woman's Resurrection, which Nordisk Film also filmed that year under the title Opstandelese. To return to Greta Garbo and Asta Nielsen, as many as 19 films have been listed as lost and as having directed by Urban Gad, the husband of the earliest of the stars of the silver screen, including Die falsche Asta Nielsen, in which Nielsen plays both her double, Bollette, and then herself.

Just as lost films have left behind their accompanying movie posters, as well as full page magazine advertisements that serve very much like movie posters when deciding not if we should see the film but what the film was like when first seen, each hardcover copy of an film adaptation into novel included a dustjacket, art that gives information about missing films: within there being Lost Films, Found Magazines. It is imperative that the word film study be surplanted by the word film appreciation: it was in 1946 that author Iris Barry cautioned the readers of Hollywood Quarterly through the article "Why wait for Posterity" as to films quickly becoming lost and the need to preserve the "romantic" Greta Garbo film The Saga of Gosta Berling (Stiller, 1925) by saving the prints from deterioration. After explaining that the original two-color technicolor copies of the Black Pirate that had belonged to Douglas Fairbanks and Harvard University, respectively, were in a vault "at the point of final deterioration", and could only be duplicated in black-and-white form, she qualifies that the criteria for screening film need, as with "the early Seastrom films", only be pleasure. "What, really is the point of dragging old films back to light? First, I believe that it benefits the general esteem and standing of the motion picture industry as a whole; for if the great films of the past are not worth taking seriously and are not worth re-examination, then presumably neither are the great films of today. It would be unthinkable if the only books available to literary men and women should be no more than those published in the past year or so."
      To echo her by my now finding this during the centennial of the two reeler in the United States  and of Victor Sjostrom and Mauritz Stiller having become contemporaries at Svenska Bio ,the biography of actress Greta Garbo penned by the present author on Geocities webpage encompassed the long waiting period before what was to be the last film to be made by Swedish film director Ingmar Bergman, which happenned to be during the centennial of the one reel narrative film, "Of the utmost importance is an appreciation of film, film as a visual literature. film as the narrative image, and while any appreciation of film would be incomplete without the films of Ingmar Bergman, every appreciation of film can begin with the films of the silent period, with the watching of the films themselves, their once belonging to a valiant new form of literautre. Silent film directors in both Sweden and the United States quickly developed film technique, including the making of films of greater length during the advent of the feature film, to where viewer interest was increased by the varying shot lengths within a scene structure, films that more than still meet the criterion of having storylines, often adventurous, often melodramatic, that bring that interest to the character when taken scene by scene by the audience."

Silent Garbo I've also since returned to the downloading photos of Greta Garbo that were scanned from the original negative and e-mailed to me by an author who was who was an apprentice of Clarence Sinclair Bull. In that they were photos of Greta Garbo that were left over from the publication, please accept that I may have been the author to introduce those particular photos to Sweden from the vault in which they were kept. Vieira quotes Greta Garbo "As she said,'I had it all my own way and did it in my own fashion.' This is what ended her carreer and what makes her cinematic legacy the exqisite thing that it is." But it is not only that, having resumed writing I recieved a reply from Norman Zierold, whose biography of Greta Garbo was publishes decades before that of the one written by Mark. A Vieria. My question was phrased,"I need a quote from correspondence on the silent film of Greta Garbo. How do you now feel about any of the particular films,i.e. The Divine Woman?" to which he replied, "No comment I can think of. Are you related to literary agent Sterling Lord?" By the way, I took the photo used in this blog for the template background; its tiled and was a kaleidoscope shot from one of my films on You Tube- it is Lena Nyman on the dust-jacket of the hardcover of Vilgot Sjoman's diary of his filming I was Curious Yellow and I was Curious Blue. In brief, the older banner that reads All About Swedish film was sent to me from someone that designs for the Potsdam Museum, which I in turn sent to an artist in California, who added tint to it before I added flash animation. Interestingly, the tinting of photographs dates back to 1932 or before; I have since found that one of the black and white photos scanned from the original negatives taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull and sent to me by author Mark A Vieira came from a negative that was actually tinted, or colorized rather, for publication by Photoplay Magazine. After the reader has seen the portraits of Greta Garbo that are mine, previously swallowed by Yahoo and Flickr, I encourage any attempt to view "Garbo's Garbos", the photographs that belonged to the actress herself. Taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull, Ruth Harriet Louise and George Hurrell, they were scheduled for public view by the Greta Garbo Estate for Christmas 2012, the collection including one particular portrait taken by Ruth Harriet Louise during the filming of The Single Standard ostensibly taken with Greta Garbo posed in front of a Paul Gaugin. I also happened to espy a copy of Photoplay Magazine that had belonged to the actress. AdPmist the webpage of Juliens Auctions 2012 a description of Greta Garbo's first screen appearance was nestled in between a "Vintage Greta Garbo Portrait" a Valentina Ottoman Silk ovwercoat and a Grey Silk Dress, they being among 800 items. It read, "Garbo's first American film, The Torrent opened oin 1926 and her entrancing performance made an international sensation. Here was a woman unlike any previously seen on a film screen." 
Silent FilmSilent Film
These two actresses were found with Swedish Silent Film actor Lars Hanson- Sofia Larssen's webpage on "Sweden's leading matinee idol of the silent era", was also a Geocities webpage before it closed. We we invited to "Also take a moment to drool over the many pictures in the gallery." From a guestbook entry on from a similar geocities page she was evidently then living in Sweden. Of particular interest was the Lars Hanson webpage written by Laurel Howard, also a geocities webpage. She writes that The Saga of Gosta Berling/The Atonement of Gosta Berling was meant to be a four hour film, "Because of the editing there are a lot gaps in the plot. It really is an epic film and needs length to show the full character and plot development...I think this film needs to be on the list for some major restoration." She later writes about "Ketta" in "the horzontal love scenes" that brought The Flesh and the Devil to renown and created a continuing fame, or unique stardom, for Greta Garbo. Webpages like these were a catalyst for my page on Greta Garbo in that it part of a series of five pages on Svenska Filmhistoria, which began chronicling the history of Swedish Silent Film from the turn of the century and I was honored to include a screening of one of the most profound and powerful films directed by Victor Sjostrom before his coming to the United States. Of particular mention is Louise Lageterstrom of the Swedish Film Institute's writing on Greta Garbo are more than worth a revisit.


Scott Lord-Silent Film swedish silent film 1909-1917

Swedish Silent Film

     In 1965, Raymond Durgnat wrote, "Greta Garbo made her last film in 1941, but nearly twenty five years later there are still rumors of possible new films, and her name can still fill a cinema. Pages later, to his account of her nearly consenting to eloped with John Gilbert and it having happenned that "finally, she hid hersOelf in a ladies 
I'm
       She and Mona Martenson were to film The Saga of Gosta Berling (1924, ten reels). Louise Lagterstrom of the Swedish Film Institute introduced the film, and Greta Garbo, in her writing with the title En Fortarande eld, Gosta Berling. Photoplay, while advertising that the article would appear in their next installment, viewed Garbo as tempermental. In the article, she talks about The Saga of Gosta Berling and of Stiller having given her 'the very best part for my very first picture.'
     If the reader of 1928 had found where in Photoplay it was continued, "This Star's Interesting Narrative was to include Greta Garbo having said, "I owe everything to Mr. Stiller" The actress related that, for one thing, they both spoke Swedish, as much as she thought that being in the United States and that it was where she could make films. Stiller had imparted to her, 'You must remember two crucial things when you play the role or for that matter any role. First, you must be aware of the period in which the character is living. Second, you must be aware of your self as an actress. If you play the role and forget about your self nothing will come of it.'
     Stiller having instructed that there be closeups shot of Garbo, he is attributed as having afterward imparted, "She is shy." and having added, "She has no technique, so she can't show what she is feeling." 

     Author Forsythe Hardy writes about Hanson's performance in The Saga of Gosta Berling in his volume Scandinavian Film, published in 1952, "Lars Hanson made a dramatic figure of the clergyman whose rebellious temperment is one of the motivating forces of the story."
     

     During 1929, Photoplay Magazine reviewed the release of The Legend of Gosta Berling, "the only European film appearance of Greta Garbo before she was sold down the river to Hollywood..It need only be said that Hollywood has made The Glamorous One...You won't die in vain even if you miss this one."
      Author Forsyth Hardy lists a number of spectacular scenes from the film before describing "one of the quieter scenes" where two actresses explore the relationships that can for between two female characters, "The two women stand face to face, their minds full of bitter memories. No word is spoken, not a guesture made. Then the women, one at either side of the great press begin to turn to it. Moments such as this, when the camera was used to express great depths of feeling, showed Stiller's gifts as a director."  
      Greta Garbo when interviewed in Photoplay Magazine described being on the set of her first leading character portrayal-Ruth Biery subtitled her second installment to The Story of Greta Garbo with Miss Garbo makes her film debut and appears like a comet in the Northern Sky."She paused again to remember, 'The first days of work I was so scared that I couldn't work. I was sick in earnest...He (Stiller) told me to practice alone. But I knew he was in some corner watching. I looked all around and could not see him, but I knew hw was there. So I would not practice."


     

Silent Greta Garbo Silent Garbo After the Saga of Gosta Berling was shot, Greta Garbo briefly returned to the Royal Dramatic Theater before being brought to Berlin for its premiere- Stiller was also with Greta Garbo for the premiere of The Joyless Street. There was a photograph of Greta Garbo and Mauritz Stiller in Berlin adorning the writing of Louise Lagterstrom of the Swedish Film Institute- she credits Stiller's discovery of Greta Garbo in its title "Siller's Kreation"
 In a Berlin hotel room, Stiller had said to Greta Garbo, "That's better. Put your feet on that stool. You're tired. A film star is always tired. It impresses people." 
Bosley Crowther, in his biography Hollywood Rajah, chronicles that while in Berlin, Mayer had screened a film directed in Sweden by Stiller after Seastrom had recommended that they meet. "It was full of snow and reiindeer...Stiller had someone call the next day and say he would like to show Mayer his latest film Gosta Berling's Saga from a novel by Selma Lagerlof. They met at a screening room." Stiller, "a tall, lanterned-jaw man who could not speak English" (Crowther) was asked during the film who Greta Garbo, "a lovely, slender, spiritual-looking blonde", was. Apparently Stiller megaphoned in Swedish, "Look at the picture! Look at the direction!" The next day the three had dinner.

Paul Rotha described Greta Garbo in the film The Joyless Street in his volume The Film Till Now, "But Greta Garbo, by reason of the sympathetic understanding of Pabst, brought a quality of lovliness into her playing as the professor's elder daughter. Her frail beauty, cold as an ice flower warmed by the sun stood secure in the starving city of Vienna, untouched by the vice and lust that dwelt in the dark little street."

Garbo was to have made a second film for Pabst but declined. Before travelling to Turkey to film Odalisque from Smolna, Greta Garbo returned to Stockholm, appearing on the Swedish stage in the play The Invisible Man, written by Lagerkvist. Stiller had written the script to the film The Odalisque of Smolny and had brought Jaenzon, Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius and Garbo to Turkey only to have the film be left unmade. In the film, Greta Garbo was to portray a harem girl; there were rehearsals held of a exterior where Garbo was to meet her lover. There is a reference to the film made by Greta Garbo in a 1928 interview for Photoplay Magazine,
''We never started on that picture. The company went broke. Mr. Stiller had to go back to Germany to see about the money which was not coming. I was alone in Constantinople. Oh, yes, Einar Hansen,' she paused, 'the Swedish boy who was killed here in Hollywood not so long ago- was there too. He was to play with me in the picture. But I did not see him often.'' 

     When interviewed in 1924, Stiller had said, 'You have to leave room for people's imagination. The film camera registers everything with such merciless clarity. We really have to leave something for the audience to interpret.'
     Irregardless of how accurate one clue about the film left behind by Photoplay magazine in 1930 may be its title, the magazine claiming that it would be rereleased in the United States under the title "When Lights are Red", "Garbo's supporting cast consists of Einar Hansen, the young actor who met with an accidental death in Hollywood several years ago and Werner Krauss. Garbo was exotic in those days, too, but not the calm, poises woman of the world she is today."
     Ake Sundberg quotes Greta Garbo as having said, "I saw Hanson seldom. He was so ashamed of his ragged beard that he hardly dared show himself." The actor was sporting the beard for the requirements of the script. In That Gustafsson Girl, written for Photoplay Magazine by Sundberg in 1930, Mauritz Stiller is attributed as having been the first European director to shoot in close-up, to shift the camera and to find "new, striking angles" "Constantinople had fascinated the Swedish girl, who had never been away from the cold countries." There would be a letter from Greta Garbo to Vera Schmiterlow sent from Constantinople. Stiller had, "written much of the story himself" and that there was a rewrite of the script required is seen as having contributed to the films having been left uncompleted. Forsyth Hardy gives an account of the film then bearing the title Konstantinopel. Accompanying the history of the film not having had been being made is the atmosphere, or innuendo, that circulated among journalists, particularly those from other European cities that had travelled to Stockholm, their heaving linked Stiller and Garbo romanticlly, to a point where there was "the rumor that Garbo married Mauritz Stiller, the Swedish motion picture director, back in 1924 when they were both working on a picture in Constantinople...Garbo, said the whispers, is a widow." One could interpret that these were encouraged by Greta Garbo having been a recluse. As late as 1933, after the Garbo image had been established, Axel Ingwerson published an article in Photoplay entitled, "Did Garbo Marry Stiller?" with the subtitle, "Is there any b asis in fact for this strange rumor." Ingwerson continued and while describing Stiller included, "The original story was that Garbo had married Stiller in Constantinople under a mutual pledge of secrecy. That Garbo, furthermore, would have kept the marriage a secret forever if she hadn't found it necessary to put forward her claim to Stiller's estate."


The subtitle to one section of The Story of Greta Garbo As told by her to Ruth Biery, published in Photo-play during 1929, reads "Tempermental or misunderstood". In it Greta Garbo relates the events that led up to her having left the studio for less than a week, "Then it was for months here before I was to work with Mr. Stiller. When it couldn't be arranged, they put me in The Torrent with Mr. Monta Bell directing...It was very hard work but i did not mind that. I was at the studio every morning at seven o'clock and worked until six every evening." She goes further while explaining that there was a language barrier that would later contribute to Mauritz Stiller also being taken off her next picture, "Mr. Stiller is an artist. he does not understand about the American factories. He has always made his own pictures in Europe where he is the master. In our country it is always the small studio."

     The production stills of Greta Garbo during the filming of The Torrent were photographed by Ruth Harriet Louise; Robert Dance and Bruce Robertson, in their volume Ruth Harriet Louise and Hollywood Glamour Photography, note that Greta Garbo was in Ruth Harriet Louise's studio within months of having filmed, but also note that before photographing Greta Garbo, Louise had created her "first published Hollywood image", that of Vilma Banky from the film Dark Angel in the September 1925 issue of Photoplay. Ruth Harriet Louise also published an early portrait of Greta Garbo in Motion Picture Classic magazine. During 1927 Photoplay added to the dynamic of extra-textual discourse and the spectator's relation to fantasy by making photographer Ruth Harriet Louise into either a real person or a celebrity, and or both, "Ruth Harriet Louise just couldn't keep away from the camera even at her own wedding...Ruth dashed behind the cameras to make certain that the lighting effects were just as she would have them...Now we wonder if Mr. Jacobson, a scenario writer at Universal followed the lead of his only-woman-photographer mate and wrote the newspaper accounts ."
    

      . It was very soon after that Greta Garbo began a love letter with her movie going audiences that would be nearly contained to her appearances in front of the camera only- Photoplay author Myrtle West that year published an article on Greta Garbo that year entitled That Stockholm Venus, and although it can almost be reduced to paragraphs confirming the need of an interpreter on the part of Greta Garbo when she had first reached Hollywood, and while it connects her with Anna Q. Nilsson and Greta Nissen in her being unfamiliar to Hollywood, it begins with, "Greta was very worried. A frown corrugated her brow." and concludes, "A face that you would remember long after the body had crumbled away.". It attempts to describe her first impression on Hollywood, "Greta has no desire to join the vacous circle of teas, dinners and dances into which this favored newcomer is invited. Besides, she has little time for men...or love. This by her own admission."

The picture of Greta Garbo in a chair seated next to a lion was followed pages later with "Why Girls leave Sweden, "Presenting to you Miss Greta Garbo- a lady who is said to have all the qualifications of a star."

     Journalist Rilla Page Palmborg followed that with the article, The Mysterious Stranger, which began with "She is a mystery to those of her own profession!" The photograph accompanying the article was taken by Ruth Harriet Louise. " 'Ever since I can remember I must be an actress,' she explained in suprisingly good English, when I asked her to telll us about herself."
    
   

      Bosley Crowther's account of it in his biography of Mayer depicts Stiller as possibly unfamiliar with the studios in the United States, "Stiller was allowed to start this one, but proved too finicky and slow, one of those 'difficult' directors that were now being got out of the studio." The advertisements in magazines that were part of Metro Goldwyn Mayer publicity for that time period did in fact, like the earlier "Eminent Authors Series", present to readers a growing collection of foreign directors imported by M.G.M.
     
     Charles Affron particularly looks to the entrances that Greta Garbo makes during the opening scenes of her silent film and notes that silent film director Fred Niblo, after taking the helm upon Stiller's leaving the filming of The Temptress, studies Garbo's beauty, her ethereality, by adding a second screen entrance of his own where Garbo, clasping flowers, is exiting a carriage- he then illustrates its use in Niblo's later film The Mysterious Lady (Den Mystika kvinna, 1928, nine reels) where Garbo, in the middle of watching an opera is seen by Conrad Nagel as he is making his entrance and then by the camera in a profile close shot. In the sequence, the camera is authorial in accordance with the action of the scene; Garbo's look is momentarily uninterrupted as Nagel, almost an interloper, is introduced into the scene by his entering the frame and by the camera nearing her as she is near motionlessly surveying the proscenium, the theater in the film a public sphere of address that envelopes its characters to where Garbo, and her act of watching becomes the subject of the cinematic address and the object of both Nagel's and the audience's interest. Affron writes that it may have been Stiller's keeping Garbo on the screen and in front of the camera that had been among the reasons for his being replaced on the set of The Temptress.

Author Mark A. Vieira was asked by Turner Classic Movies to provide audio narrative commentary to the film The Temptress for its The Garbo Silents collection, his on occaision quoting the actress during the film as well as his quoting from her correspondence. The Temptress begins with a blue-tinted exterior shot, Fred Niblo then cutting what seems to be an opera house during which there are lights from the cieling that sway back and forth across a costume dance. During the next scene Garbo in an evening gown that is folded like a robe enters a drawing room where there is a visitor that has been invited to dinner. During the dinner, there is an pullback shot over a table that is elaborately included in the scene, it having been designed almost as though the scene from a pre-code film in the plunging necklines of its tight clinging evening gowns in contrast most of the films scenes that seem bookended between the beginning and end of the film. After a series of exterior shots filmed by assistant director H. Bruce Humberstone, Lionel Barrymore is introduced in the film, Greta Garbo shortly thereafter reintroduced as the camera cuts away from her before it is finished panning up, it cutting back after an interpolated shot to finish panning from her waist upward, the camera slowly reflecting upon the unexpectedness of her being reunited with the other characters. Director Fred Niblo had apparently also taken over behind the camera for Lynn Shores during the shooting of The Devil Dancer (1927, eight reels), actress Gilda Gray having had been being on the set.
In a scene where Garbo is shown in an extreme close up sitting with Lionel Barrymore, author Mark A. Vieira chooses to discuss that whereas previously close ups had often been used in silent film as being concerned with a different plane of action as other shots filmed from other camera distances, Niblo seems to include closeups into the characterization through a use of lighting and diffusion while filming. Irregardless of this, later in the film there is extreme close up of Garbo that is abruptly cut almost on a reverse angle right before her and her lover are about to kiss. The character movement of the two nearing each other is held, if only briefly, Garbo near stunning as the camera only briefly contains her within the frame. There in the film is a scene with a rainstorm and flood that, and although it was more than quite concievably added to the plotline for its excitement, is almost a haunting acknowledgement of the camerawork of either Mauritz Stiller or Victor Sjostrom in Sweden and the role of nature in Swedish silent film, in this instance an acknowledgement punctuated by Greta Garbo, who is seen right before the rain during a night exterior in the mountains, alone with her lover in a series of close shots, her then being only briefly seen in profile during the thunder and lightning and then again in one of the most beautiful evening gowns of the film, her shoulders bare as she is reading a letter.

   

The Street of Sin (1928, :Author Paul Rotha reviewed "that most extraordinary of movies" shortly after the release of the film, "No expense was spared on its making. The script was well-balanceed;the continuity was good; the setting natural. yet for some obscure reason it was one of the worst films ever done. It defied analysis.  

Glimpses of the Garbo of 1924, a year when in the United States Viola Dana and Jetta Goudal were starring together in the film Open All Night (six reels), can be seen in the letters between her and Swedish actress Mimi Pollock authenticated by author Tin Andersen Axell, letters on which his newest book is based. Leaving us again with something mysterious, the letters written by Pollack to Greta Garbo have been unseen by the public and are thought to be currently included in the collection of Scott Riesfield.
 
     There is an account that Greta Garbo had seen Mauritz Stiller's film Erotikon in a theater in Sweden.
Appearing on the screen in the 1920 Gustaf Molander film Bodakungen was Franz Envall, whom Greta Garbo mentioned in a 1928 Photoplay magazine interview with Ruth Biery, "Then I met an actor...it was Franz Envall. He is dead now, but he has a daughter in the stage in Sweden. he asked if they would not let me try to get into the Dramatic School of the Royal Theater in Stockholm."

     Paul Rotha, writing at the time of the silent era having come to and and sound film making its beginning in his volume The Film till now, a survey of the cinema, helped formulate the consensus that the value of Swedish Silent Film lay in its depiction of man's relation to the enviornment, shown through exterior shots during the period of the silent film of Victor Sjostrom untill the interior shooting of Gustaf Molander during the early sound era, that there was a "lyricism" that brought "depth and width" that would make each director the others contemporary. "With Seastrom it manifests itself in his shots of landscape, his feeling for the presence of the elements, his love of the wind and sky, and flowers...Seastrom too this reality of nature with him to the mechanized studios of hollywood and it blossomed even in that hot-house atmosphere."
     
 Notably, Clarence Brown in 1925 directed Rudolph Valentino in the film The Eagle, which is of interest not only for its introduction of the pull-back shot, a tracking shot moving away from its subject similar to the present day zoom-out, but it was also one of the first films for which Adrain had designed the costumes, the other that year having had been being Her Sister From Paris.
Basil Rathbone, who co-starred with Greta Garbo under the direction of Clarence Brown, in the sound version of Anna Karenina, wrote of his aquaintance with her in his autobiography, In and Out of Character. "I first met Miss Garbo in 1928 when Ouida and I were invited to lunch with Jack Gilbert one Sunday." Rathbone and his wife had been present at the premiere of the film Flesh and the Devil. Of his starring in film with her, he wrote, "And so upon the morning previously arranged I called upon Miss Garbo. The house, a small one, was as silent as the grave. There was no indication it might be occupied." Rathbone had also appeared in silent films- Trouping with Ellen (T. Hayes Hunter, seven reels) in 1924, The Masked Bride (Christy Cabanne, six reels), starring Mae Murray, in 1925 and The Great Deception (Howard Higgin, six reels) in 1926. Jane Ardmore's biography, The Self-Enchanted- Mae Murray: Image of an Era, only briefly mentions Basil Rathbone or Greta Garbo it is an account of off-screen Hollywood, "Every fourth Sunday Mae threw open her house for lavish entertainment...Jack Gilbert brought Greta Garbo. They were in love and radiant, but Greta was worried about the studio, she was shy, there seemed such commotion, her engeries were sapped. 'You should have a dressing room on the set as I do, Darling.' Mae told her." Mae Murray would be attending a birthday party later that year for Rudolph Valentino given by Pola Negri. Rathbone and his wife had been present at the premiere of Flesh and the Devil. On learning that Greta Garbo had already had the film Mata Hari in production, Pola Negri deciding between scripts that were in her studio's story department chose A Woman Commands as her first sound film, in which she starred with Basil Rathbone. Of Rathbone she wrote in her autobiography, 'As an actor, I suspected Rathbone might be a little stiff and unromantic for the role, but he made a test that was suprisingly good.' Directed by Paul L.Stein, the films also stars Reginald Owen and Roland Young.



In his biography of Greta Garbo, Raymond Durgnat quotes "the austerest of all film directors", Carl Dreyer, although the quote seems superfluous or decorative to the essay, as having said, "Nothing in the world can be compared to the human face. It is a land no one can never tire of exploring." The context was that Garbo, being a film star, was an object of art.

 Greta Garbo Greta Garbo

There were 478 silent films made in Sweden; of them only 192 still exist, although there are copies of fragments from a number of them. Added to that, countless Danish silent films produced by Ole Olsen for Nordisk Films Kompagni are "presumably lost": the Danish Film Institute notes that approximately 1600 silent short and feature films were made whereas only 250 films presently exist, Not the only webpage concerned with the preservation of Silent Film, the lost films webpage from Berlin show clips and stills from fifty silent film that it claims are "unknown or unidentified".

     Not only is the film in which Victor Sjostrom directed Greta Garbo lost, Sjostrom, while in the United States was to direct the first feature released by Metro Goldwyn Mayer, He Who Gets Slapped, (seven reels 1924), starring Lon Chaney, Jack Gilbert and Norma Shearer. It was Norma Shearer who was to star opposite Lon Chaney in the other M.G.M directed by Victor Sjostrom under the name Seastrom of which there are no existant copies, that film being Tower of Lies (1924, seven reels).

  Silent Greta Garbo

     Writing about Greta Garbo, Richrad Corliss quotes film director Clarence Brown as also having related that he would "direct her very quietly" and never "gave her director above a whisper." In an interview during which she outlines her having met John Gilbert, Greta Garbo, as quoted by Ruth Biery in The Story of Greta Garbo, said, "When I finished The Temptress, they gave me the script for The Flesh and the Devil to read. I did not like the story. I did not want to be a silly temptress. I cannot see any sense in getting dressed up and doing nothing by tempting men in pictures." This is oddly echoed by National Board of Review magazine, in which the conclusion was drawn that "The leading contributor to the success of Flesh and the Devil is Greta Garbo." It provided a synopsis of the film that also lent the background to its addressing the desire of Greta Garbo to leave her ealier "ladies of vampish repute" characters and to be seen as a more serious dramatic, or romantic dramatic, actress. It primarily sees her as being more believable character, "Miss Garbo in her later day impersonation shows a frail physique and a fragile ethereal air. She is infinitely more civilized and all the more subtle for not being so deliberate."

    ---------Flesh edit

     National Board of Review magazine encapsulated the film with "The directorial skill of Clarence Brown, the cinematic slickness of the photography, and the careful attention to detail do the rest. Greta care has been taken in the scenification of the who picture to create an atmosphere in which duels and a society whose moral codes have been tinged by a military regime will seem natural."
     Clarence Sinclair Bull contributed a portrait of Lars Hanson to Motion Picture Magazine, the photo-caption reading, "Here's a new hero for you. Whether its acting ability, sincerity, or sex appeal you're looking for, Lars has got it. He was a match for the screen's foremost actress in The Scarlet Letter, and we've no doubt he'll make even John Gilbert look to his laurels in Flesh and the Devil."
     The portrait of Greta Garbo that year in Motion Picture Magazine had been photographed by Ruth Harriet Louise, its caption reading "We are feverishly awaiting her performance opposite John Gilbert in Flesh and the Devil"- by then it was becoming increasingly unnecessary to introduce her as a star that was rising. And yet the when the magazine reviewed the film with the article An Idyll or a Tragedy- Which? When Clarence Brown filmed the Love Scenes of Greta Garbo and John Gilbert for Flesh and the Devil, he was working with raw material, the author began with, "None of us knows very much about her."
     When the film was reviewed by Motion Picture Magazine the film was praised with "Here is one of the best pictures relected upon the old screen in many a moon, the perfection of which is only marred by the ending, which appears tacked on, as an afterthought...Greta is a beautiful nymphomaniac..You never feel the chaos she causes exaggerated. She's attractive enough to wreak havoc in a man's world."
     Film Daily listed the adaptation credit as Hans Kraly and the scenario and continuity credit as Benj F. Glazer, "Story Strong in Sex Appeal but Splendidly Handled." It looked at both co-stars, "John Gilbert renews his hold on the title of the screen's great lover...Greta Garbo about the most alluring creature imaginable...An overindulgence in painted backdrops and a fairly unconvincing, sugar-coated ending are the only criticism to be offered."
The story of John Gilbert and Greta Garbo was often retold after the advent of the sound film. There is a photograph that appears to be from the filming of Flesh and the Devil; the photocaption is from the Photoplay article "Unknown Hollywood I Know", written by Katherine Albert in 1932, and reads, "An old and never-published snapshot of Garbo and Gilbert in the flush of romance. Garbo liked to picnic alone. Jack liked to go to parties. So they picnicked alone." The article gives an account of John Gilbert futilely waiting for Greta Gabo to call him, "Jack worshipped Garbo, there's no doubt about that..Well, she gave him a cool, dispassioned regard."
 orma Shearer, who had starred under Victor Sjostrom's direction in Tower of Lies with William Haines had said that Sjostrom "was more concerned with the moods he was creating than the shadings he would have injected into my performance."
     When reviewed by Photoplay Magazine, the film was seen as "a worthwhile picture spoiled by a too conscious effort to achieve art. Consequently, a human story suffers from artificiality." When further reviewed by Photoplay, it was added that, "If the director had been as concerned with telling the story as he was thinking of symbolic scenes, this would have been a great picture. As it is, Victor Seastrom was so busy being artistic that he forgot to be human. The emotions are of those of the theater, not of life." Actor William Haines later was to tell Photoplay Magazine, "But then it is strange, too, that I have worked here for several years on the same lot with Greta Garbo and have never met her."
    



W. S. Van Dyke that year brought Wanda Hawley to the screen in the film The Eyes of Totem, also starring Ann Cornwall. That Movie Classic Magazine included the title New Styles for Sex Appeal on its November,1933 cover featuring Greta Garbo is a fitting contrast to when the magazine had featured Garbo the silent actress on its cover during 1927 before it had changed its name, a look, from Motion Picture Classic. Alice Joyce had been the magazine's cover girl during the previous month and silent actress Betty Bronson followed during March. Included among those chosen to be covergirl for Photoplay Magazine during February of 1927 were actresses Olive Borden, Arlette Marchal, Lois Wilson, Mae Murray and Mary Brian. Actresses chosen by Screenland magazine in 1927 to grace its cover included Marie Provost, lya De Putti,Anita Parkhurst, Gilda Gray and Jetta Goudal: Each month Cal York wrote a page entitled Girl on the Cover; in regard to any personal favorite covers to Photoplay Magazine of the present author, so far there are two, both from 1926, Marion Davies and Alice Joyce. While author Deebs Taylor explains that 'it' as typified by Elinor Glyn was sex appeal, he also writes that silent film actress Clara Bow had brought the excitement of the flapper to the screen a year before her having been given the role in the 1927 film It (seven reels) during her appearance in the film Mantrap (Victor Fleming, seven reels). She appeared on the cover of Filmjournalen Magazine in 1927 and in 1929. Photoplay Magzine covers for the year 1928, featured the actresses Corinne Griffith, Marion Davies, Evelyn Brent, Billie Dove, Ruth Taylor, Ester Ralston and Eleanor Boardman.
     Clara Bow is a particular instance of Lost Films, Found Magazines; a highly publicized silent actress that was often written about, if not written about in within the extra-textual discourse of fan magazines as one the earliest forms of film criticism, with the expectation that modern novels that had not yet been filmed would soon be brought to the screen, Clara Bow appearred in several films that have only been seen due to recent efforts to preserve them. Parts of silent films are missing- among the films featuring Clara Bow either still incomplete, but restored, or restored in their entirety are Down to the Sea in Ships (1922), Maytime (Gasnier, 1923), Poisoned Paradise (Gasnier, 1924), Black Oxen (Frank Lloyd, 1924) and the 1925 film My Lady of Whims. Without the films, all that is left are magazine advertisements where the screen star cordially invites our consumership, not only our consumership as spectators for the advertised product, but as spectators for the fantasies of 'a now by gone era', the look of the female directed to a time only preserved as being seldom seen on the silent silver screen, once captured by the moving camera and now guessed at through the pages of magazines.
John Gilbert that  year made Twelve Miles Out (Jack Conway, eight reels). John Gilbert also appeared that year with Jeanne Eagles in the film Man, Woman and Sin (seven reels), which Photoplay reviewed as being of interest because the actresses and actor were paired together but concluded, "Miss Garbo needn't worry over Miss Eagles.", it thinking that the film and the part played by the actress was tailored in order to substitute for Garbo. "Director-and author-Monta Bell knows his city room. After that the film disintegrates into cheap melodrama." The following year John Gilbert appeared in Four Walls, made with him by director William Nigh, (eight reels), and actress Vera Gordon.
"Came the talkies- came Gilbert's unfortunate and subsequently not-so-good pictures...I believe unquestionably that Jack Gilbert would have made a great motion picture star after the talkies. I believe with a little study, a little direction, a good deal of careful help and selection of stories and directors, he might have survived them as well as his beloved Greta Garbo" It was during the summer of 1935 that Adela Rogers St. Johns predicted "his bitter destruction", her writing the article What Defeated Jack Gilbert for Photoplay magazine. It might be noticed that she is in no way maudlin, but rather morbid, if not eerie. "It would be easier to bear if it had been Jack's fault. But it wasn't. Never." And yet it was six months before the actor's death; as she surveys his marriages and pronounces his love for Greta Garbo as having been all-consuming, she approaches the "beautiful letters" of literature; she is hauntingly like those actresses that had buried Rudolph Valentino, "Amid the glitter of Hollywood there have been many tragedies, but none more poignant or more heartbreaking than Gilbert's."

Actress Emily Fitzroy, who appeared with John Gilbert and Greta Garbo in the 1927 film Love, had that year appeared in the films Married Alive (Emmett Flynn, five reels), with Margaret Livingston and Gertrude Claire, Orchids and Ermine (Alfred Santell, seven reels) with Colleen Moore, Hedda Hopper and Alma Bennet, One Increasing Purpose (Harry Beaumont, eight reels), with Lila Lee, Jane Novak and May Allison, and Once and Forever (Phil Stone, six reels), with Patsy Ruth Miller and Adele Watson.
During 1929 Motion Picture Magazine had introduced Jearaldine DeVorak, a fashion model who was given a small salary to become "Greta Garbo's official double" when she had been noticed as an extra, working as a dancer. "'I adored Garbo on the screen,' she explained.'Once i spent the whole day sitting through five show of The Temptress...They made tests of me and dressed me in gorgeous gowns...She is so lovely and i know she taught me a great deal about acting."

     In 1927 Greta Garbo had written, 'I could not believe that what I saw when I was first taken to the Metro-Goldwyn Mayer lot was a studio. I found that it covered acres and acres of ground and boasted some twenty stages, each one of which was larger than our entrie studio in Sweden.' The quote is from an article printed in Theatre Magazine entitled 'Why I am a Recluse.' and it either smooths out the extatextual discourse surrounding her on-screen sphinx-like image or was only partly written by Garbo for the studio publicity department; she had earlier renounced her 'vamp roles' in order to film melodrama- in any event Greta Garbo herself relished reading fan magazines no matter how taciturn she had been. In the article, she explains the difficulty involved in acting in the United States, 'My country, Sweden, is so small. It is also so quiet...During my first picture, Ibanez's Torrent, it was exactly as if I had to learn the making of motion pictures all over again. I was just beginning to learn the language... Now of course, things are easier for me. The second picture, The Temptress, I found less hard. The Flesh and the Devil fairly spung along, and now Love is going easier still. The studio does not seem as large as it did.'


 Photoplay added, "Greta Garbo's pet hobby is Swedish fan mail." Two magazines of which copies may have belonged to her during 1928 were issues that featured Greta Garbo as a covergirl for Motion Picture Classic and Greta Garbo as a covergirl for Screenland in 1927- in regard to magazine art and the actress as model, the magazine cover as modern canvas, Greta Garbo was on the cover of six issues of the magazine Screenland: February 1927, May 1928, November 1929, June 1931, June 1934, and November 1935. Interestingly, while readers were awaiting her picture on the cover of the June 1931 issue, which included the caption "A New Slant on Garbo", her name appeared on the caption of each preceding issue, irregardless of who the actress covergirl for that month was. The cover to February's issue had read "Garbo Menace", April's had read "The Real Garbo", and July's had read  "Etching of Garbo"-  the most beautifully erotic cover of Marlene Dietrich during March of 1931 had had, below the portrait of the German actress, the words "Dietrich's Shadow on Garbo's Path." Actress Greta Garbo, while still fairly new to Hollywood, appeared on the covers of Photoplay Magazine for May 1928, August 1929, August 1930, January 1932 and January 1933. During the four short years between 1934 and 1938, Greta Garbo appeared on seven covers of the magazine Film Pictorial. It is now beyond asking if James Quirk's Photoplay is literature, it was, for the most part art, and if about the cinematic art, it was painterly. During 1928, it happenned to read, "The plans for Brown to direct Greta Garbo in "Java" have been shelved and he will now direct John Gilbert and Miss Garbo in "The Sun of St. Moritz." Garbo, incidently had declined a role in the silent film Women Love Diamonds (Edmund Goulding, seven reels,1927), it not having met with her approval; the film was to star Douglas Fairbanks Jr., Lionel Barrymore and Owen Moore. "And there I met him for the first time, except to nod to him, John Gilbert. He has such vitality, spirit, eagerness. Every morning at nine o clock he would slip to work opposite me...When I finished The Flesh and the Devil, they wanted me to do Women Love Diamonds. I could not do that story....Finally, they call me and say they have a story. I read it and went out and asked what part I was to play and they said the little part. Aileen Pringle and Lew Cody were to play the big parts...and was ready to play the little part in the picture when Miss Pringle said sh would not do it."
Silent Greta Garbo Silent Greta Garbo
Silent Garbo

     In Sweden, Ragnar Hylten-Cavallius continued directing with Youth (Ungdom), starring Ivan Hedqvist, Marta Hallden and Brita Appelgren. Erik A Petschler in 1927 directed Hin och smalanningen, photographed by Gustav A Gustafson and starring Birgit Tengroth, Ingrid Forsberg, Greta Anjou, Jenny-Tschernichin-Larsson, Helga Brofeldt, Emy Bergstrom and Emy Albiin. Gustaf Edgren in 1927 directed The Ghost Baron (Spokbaronen) starring Karin Swanström and photographed by Adrian Bjurman, which was followed by Black Rudolf (Svarte Rudolf, 1928) starring Inga Tiblad and Fridolf Rhudin, both films having been written by Sölve Cederstrand. The assistant director to the film Black Rudolf had been Gunnar Skogland, it having been the first film in which the actress Katie Rolfsen was to appear.

The screenplays to The Kiss (Kyssen, Feyder, seven reels) and Wild Orchids were both written by Hans Kraly during a year in which he had also written Eternal Love (Lubitsch, nine reels), Betrayal (Lewis Milestone, eight reels), The Garden of Eden (Lewis Milestone), starring Corrinne Griffith and Lowell Sherman, and The Last of Mrs. Cheyney. Kraly also in the United States had earlier penned the screenplays to Rosita (Lubitsch, 1923, nine reels), Black Oxen (Frank Lloyd, 1924, eight reels), Three Women (Lubitsch, 1924, eight reels), Forbidden Paradise (1924) and Her Night of Romance (Sidney Franklin, 1924, eight reels). In Germany, Kraly had written the scripts to the films of Danish director Urban Gad, including the 1913 film The Film Star (Die Filmprimaddonna, starring Asta Nielsen. Opposite Greta Garbo from the first scene of The Kiss onward was actor Conrad Nagel.
Cal York in of Photoplay in 1928 quoted Greta Garbo as then saying, "Eef I was tempermental, I would not work untill I got what I wanted." the journalist haing added that the "rumors about Garbo's temperment" at the time included that "she likes to be alone, that she is different, 'the one great exception'." If nothing else, the quote may show how inaccessible to the press, or how inaccessible it seemed she should be depicted. The context was when "Production had begun on the Greta Garbo picture War in the Dark when the fact was disclosed that the star was to wear another fur cape or coat. She stoutly rebelled saying she had worn a coat in every picture she had made and would not wear one in this." On other pages that year the magazine added a provocative photo of Greta Garbo, seductive, bareshouldered in a low cut evening dress with the caption, "Who wants movies with incidental sounds? Who would be disturbed by the smack of the kiss Conrad Nagel is planting on Greta Garbo's kneck in War in The Dark? Norma Shearer in 1928 appeared on theater marquees in The Actress (Sidney Franklin, seven reels), a film photographed by William Daniels, The Latest from Paris (eight reels) and A Lady of Chance.

Silent film actress Vilma Banky was seen on the screen in theaters across the United States during 1928 with Ronald Colman in Two Lovers (nine reels), directed by Fred Niblo. That same year it was reported, "Vilma Banky's first picture following Two Lovers will be entitled The Awakening (nine reels) instead of The Innocent. It is an original Frances Marion. Victor Fleming is to direct."

Forsythe Hardy only briefly mentions The Divine Woman in Scandinavian Film, after earlier having announced that the films directed by Mauritz Stiller in the United States also were to lay outside the province of his writing, but he appears to in general be in concordence with Bengt Forslund that the films made in the United States by Stiller and or Sjostrom were not up to par with those they may have or would have made in Sweden, although he favorably notes, "His direction of Greta Garbo in The Divine Woman had the understanding we might have expected."
     
---fragment edit:
For film detectives that look to piece together the scirpt details from magazine articles, the clock also appears in the 1928 review of the film in the bi-weekly The Film Spectator and it is put into relation with Lars Hanson's dialog as he relates to Garbo that his time with her could be limited, but it then chides the actor and actress for their not seeing the seriousness of their existential engagement and involvement with their circumstances. 

As there are no copies of the film, I have added the entire review of The Divine Woman as it appeared in National Board of Review magazine, "Paris is the background for this romantic drama. Scorned by her pleasure loving mother, a young girl is brought up in the home of a Briton peasant. later she enters the realm of the theatre winning fame and recognition, all of which she gives up for the love of a poor peasant. The story holds the interest and the acting of the two Swedish stars, now well known in America, is excellant." The portraits of Greta Garbo published in Photoplay during the first run of The Divine Woman were taken by Ruth Harriet Louise. In an atricle entitled Love Stories, Photoplay during 1928 used a still photo from The Divine Woman that the present author was unfamiliar with as having had been published elsewhere,but added a photocaption to a still of Lars Hanson on the floor with Garbo putting her cheek next to his while nearly laying on top of him during an embrace that read, "By nature we are polygamous or polyandrous. Such love scenes between Greta Garbo and Lars Hanson are a pretty safe way of satisfying that desire to philander." There is another movie still later that only add to whether the photocaption is incorrectly, or hurriedly, used, "Because we are curious about love, because we are always seeking the perfect love affair, the screen romances of Vilma Banky and Ronald Colman have a constant fascination for us. In his Film Essays and Criticism, a valuable introduction to film,

Rudolf Arnheim gives Greta Garbo only a two page "portrait", but it is from 1928 and may be more than a cursory glance, his writing, "On cat's feet, her coat pulled tightly about her and her hands folded in her lap, Greta Garbo passes censorship." Arnheim sees Greta Garbo as erotic, as an erotic object. Elevated later, to Bela Belazs, author of Theory of the Film in which she would attain, or become, Heroes, Beauty, Stars and the Case of Greta Garbo, she would "bear the the stamp of sorrow; and loneliness." Bela Belazs takes a thoughtful pause of appreciation before adding his own melancholy, "Greta Garbo's beauty is a beauty which is in opposition to the world of today." The Divine Bernhardt that was immortalized as a model for artist Alphonse Mucha exists, Adrienne Lecouvrer (An Actresse's Romance (Louis Mercanton, 1913, two reels) does not. Other than as seen advertised in magazines of the time period like Motion Picture World, the film regrettably is lost. And yet oddly, or as uncanny, Belaz features a photograph of Asta Nielsen in the film Die Ewege Natt with a caption reading, "The script-writers destroyed a growing art when they gave speech to the great mutes."




Photoplay reviewed The Enemy in 1929, "This picture offers the most stirring anti-war propaganda wver filmed, yet maintains a heart interest which will thrill you every moment...Lillian Gish ceases to be the ethereal goddess. She is an everyday woman who sacrifices her man, her child and finally her honor, for the necessity rather than glory of battle."

      Written by Solve Cederstrand and photographed by Hugo Edlund, Konstgjorda Svensson (1929) ,with Brita Appelgren, Ruth Weijden, Rolf Husberg and Weyeler Hildebrand, was directed by Gustaf Edgren. Also appearing in the film were Karin Gillberg and Sven Gustasfsson, the brother of Greta Garbo. Photoplay in 1929 featured a photo of the couple, its caption reading, "It's in the old Garbo blood, for Greta's brother is an actor too!! His name is Sven and he is shown rocking the boat in a scene from "The Robot", a new Swedish film. The young lady is Miss Karin Gillberg, another argument for better ship service to Scandinavia."

      On his return to Sweden, Photoplay Magazine recorded, "Contentment meant more to Lars than mon. " With Asther already cast, the magazine had listed Heat as the "working title" of the film.
     

     Before co-starring with Garbo, in 1928 alone, Nils Asther had appeared in the films Laugh Clown Laugh (Herbert Brenon, eight reels) with Lon Chaney and Loretta Young, The Cardboard Lover (eight reels), Dream of Love (Fred Niblo, six reels) photographed by William Daniels and Oliver Marsh and starring Warner Oland, Adrienne Lecouvrer, and The Blue Danube (Paul Sloane, seven reels) with Seena Owen.
     That year also saw The Cossacks (George Hill, ten reels) with John Gilbert. The "portrait" of John Gilbert and Renee Adoree published in Photoplay, which, taken in costume, on the set, seems more like a publicity still than a posed portrait, was taken by Ruth Harriet Louise, its caption reading, "Love among the rural Russians...It is a story of the peasant classes."

Photoplay magazine in 1930 went so far as to claim that the reason that Nils Asther was not returning to Sweden was his marriage to Vivian Duncan, but it then added that "talkies" and the advent of sound film was the responsible for his at first having been thought to be retired from film and that that might soon be reversed by his on-screen appearance. Asther had met Vivian Duncan on the set of his first film made in Hollywood, Topsy and Eva. Clarence Brown and photographer Oliver T. Marsh would rejoin Nils Asther and Lewis Stone, adding Robert Montgomery, to adapt the novel Letty Lynton for the screen in 1932. And yet during 1933 there seemed like a publicity duel between two of Nils Asther's films and their respective full page magazine advertisements, By Candlelight seeming only slightly more glossy than Madame Spy, in which he starred with Fay Wray. "The girls go into long trousers. For the sea scenes of The Single Standard, Greta Garbo wore slannel trousers with a plain, tuck in sweater and sea-going canvas shoes."
     Picture Play magazine in 1929 ran the caption "Simplicity, even frugality, marks Greta Garbo's mode of living" and placed it beneath a photo credited to Genthe. It added another photo and caption, "Only self-expression draws Greta Garbo, for she is indifferent to fame and the luxury that come with stardom." In regard to her being versatile, the following it added yet another brief photocaption, "Greta Garbo portrays the torments of love, and little else."

     As early as 1928 Ruth Beiry had speculated in Photoplay Magazine with the article "Will Nils Asther Retire?" After having dinner with the actor she wrote, "There is no doubt he is restless, unhappy yearning for the outlet for his work as he learned it in Europe." Asther told her, "Over here i feel I am wating my time..I want to have something to say about my stories. I want to work hand in hand with my director. I want to think about my part and then do it." He continues, "Life is too short There is so much to be accomplished...I would like to play with Von Strohiem. He would have so much to teach me."

     To end 1928, Film Daily reported, Garbo Re-signed, claiming that had signed a new contract with M.G.M., one that would allow her to go on a vacation before going into effect and speculated with a fair amount of certainty that her first picture on her return would be an adaptation of a novel written by Elinor Glyn.
Louise Lagertstrom of the Swedish Film Insitute titled her webpage on the career of Greta Garbo for the period 1928-1929 Superstjarna. While in Sweden, during 1928, Garbo had come across the actress Vera Schmiterlow, whom she had known well and whom she had hoped would venture to Hollywood and also while in Sweden had renewed her acquaintance with the actress Marte Hallden. Lars Saxon, who twice published Greta Garbo in his magazine Lektyr, and who corresponded with her while she had been in the United States at MGM, met her as she was travelling.

It was also while in Sweden that she had first met Gösta Ekman, who greeted her by saying , 'But you're so ordinary.' Later she visited Ekman's dressing room to thank him for the use of his seat at a theatrical play that Stiller had directed when it had first began its run. Ekman was purportedly in hope of sharing the Swedish stage with her in a theater run of Grand Hotel.
     

Greta Garbo Complementing this, Lewis Stone has been quoted as having said, 'She was Garbo, and that said it all. No one has ever created such an impression.', whereas Edmund Goulding is quoted as having said, 'I don't believe that Garbo's astounding success depends on any mystery. She has movie sex appeal, if I may say so, but her success depends more on her unique ability to work and her will to achieve absolute concentration before the camera.' He added, 'For all her enormous success, she is just the same as when we worked together in Love; only perhaps a little more shy and solitary.' Garbo had been slated to film Ordeal with Lon Chaney under the direction of Marcel de Sano, it having been left unmade.What is meant to be fascinating is that after being deemed, or deigned a recluse, when it was announced that she was in a position to consider retirement, interest in Greta Garbo went to a depth that reached Greta Gustasfson and biography about the actress appeared; magazines were still interested in publishing stills Garbo had posed for in Sweden during the the film Peter and the Tramp and, after his death, were still probing into her affection for John Gilbert and Garbo's intention of marrying him in Mexico. In the 1937 article, After Twelve Years Greta Garbo Wants to Go Home to Sweden, readers in the United States discovered, "in 1936 she bought an estate outside Stockholm. Having finished Conquest she will go there to spend a few months, or many." Greta Garbo appears on the cover of the magazine quite possibly only by dint of the photo being in costume from the set of the film.
Photoplay magazine included two, if only two and not more, items of interest, "Mauritz Stiller, the Swedish director, is leaving Paramount to spend three months abroad." to which it added later on the same page, "Tod Browning is leaving Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer." As 1929 began Photoplay had reported, "Mauritz Stiller, director and discoverer of Greta Garbo, died suddenly in Stockholm. Miss Garbo was prostrated by the new and work on her picture has been held up." In the article Going Hollywood, Ruth Waterbury wrote, "Today Stiller is dead. He died a lonely, defeated, heartbroken man, an exile from the city that made Greta famous." Greta Garbo had appeared in the film Peter and the Tramp (Luffar-Peter, 1922 five reels) with Gucken Cederborg, Tyra Ryman and its director, Erik Petschler. With Greta Garbo, also listed as being in the film Luffar Peter is Mona Geifer-Falkner. The first film Mona Geifer-Falkner had appeared on the screen in had been Alexander den store (1917), directed by Mauritz Stiller. Eric Petschler gives an account of his having given Garbo the address of Mauritz Stiller and of her having not only having tried to see him twice before they were to meet at the Royal Dramatic Academy, where she was to study under Gustaf Molander, but of his having arranged a third meeting where Stiller had asked for her telephone number. Petschler had then introduced Garbo to the director Frans Enwall. Before directing Greta Garbo, Eric A. Petschler directed the film Getting Baron Olson Married (Gifta ort Baron Olson, 1920), starring Gucken Cederborg and Varmlanningarna (1921), the first film in which Rosa Tillman was to appear. Ragnar Ring directed the short film Paul U Bergström AB Stockholm(1920)-Greta Garbo appeared in the short film, also titled Herrskapet Stockholm ute pa inkop, it also being the first film in which the actress Olga Andersson was to appear, as well her having appeared in the short Reklamfilm PUB Greta Garbo (1921), both films photographed by Ragnar Ring. In 1923 Ring directed Helene Olsson in the film Har Ni nagot att forakra.

 Directing A Modern Hero in the United States with cameraman William Rees in 1934, G. W. Pabst, the director of Greta Garbo's second feature film, had entered into the directing of sound film with the films Westernfront 1918 (1930), Die Greigroschen Oper (1931) and Kameradschaft (1932). His actress seemed to be Louise Brooks, whom in 1929 he had directed in the films Pandora's Box and Diary of a Lost Girl (Das Tagebuch einer verbrenen). After her having appeared with Edvin Adolphson in the film Brollopet i Branna (1927), directed by Erik Petschler, Mona Martenson in Norway starred with Einar Tveito in People of the Tundra (Viddenesfolk) (1928) written and directed by Ragnar Westfelt for Lunde-film, in Germany starred with Aud Egede Nissen in the film Die Frau in Talar, in Norway starred in the film Laila (1929) directed by George Schneevoigt for Lunde-film from a script adapted from a novel by Jens Anders Friis, and in Denmark starred in the film Eskimo (1930), also directed by George Schneevoight- it had not only been Greta Garbo and Victor Sjöström that had made the transition from silent film to sound.
      
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Mordant Hall claimed to conduct an interview with Greta Garbo during which it was attributed as her having said, "If they want me to talk, I'll talk. I'd love acting in a talking picture when they are better, but the ones I've seen are awful. It's no fun to look at a shadow and somewhere out of the theatre a voice is coming." Writing in 1929, the author added, "There is no longer any Swedish coterie in hollywood, for Victor Seastrom is no longer there. Lars Hanson is back in his native land, to which lesser lights have flown."
     After returning to Sweden in hope that it was there that his daughters would be raised, Sjostrom appeared with Lars Hanson and Karin Molander in a short 1931 beauty contesst film, Froken, Ni linkar Greta Garbo, where Eivor Nordstrom was chosen to be most like Greta Garbo. Its photographer was Ake Dahlquist. With Per-Axel Branner for an assistant director and actress Karin Granberg in the first film in which sshe was to appear. Victor Sjostrom returned to the screen with Brokiga Blad, in which he cast Lili Ziedner.



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Photoplay in 1930 noted, "At the end of every picture Greta Garbo gives an entire day to new portraits. She takes it seriously...She will be photographed on in the only in the clothes she wears in her pictures...One Garbo belongs to the public, the other is a private individual. To keep in the sustained mood she likes to have sad music played on the phonograph. To end the silent era two months before Greta Garbo's last silent film, The Kiss (Jacques Feyder), Clarence Sinclair Bull became her gallery photographer. Author Mark A. Viera writes, 'She liked him because, like Clarence Brown, he spoke softly, if at all.' When Geocites closed, the still photographs scanned from the orginal negatives that Mr. Vieira sent via yahoo e-mail to the present author, and the two letters he wrote were transferred to my google blog. They include a still photograph of Greta Garbo in The Kiss left over from his editorial decision. Apparently he owned more photographs than he needed to publish and sent the unused ones to me. Please accept that I may have been the author to introduce the photos to a Swedish readership, years after they were unearthed. As the reader will notice, the photo used on the cover of Mr. Vieira's was sent to without the title Cinematic Legacy lettering. One published photograph taken by Clarence S. Bull found by the present author was in an issue of International Photographer from 1931, a portrait of camerman John W. Boyle, who had only just then returned from Scandinavia filming a "multi-color film" in Denmark and who would make Sweden, Land of the Viking, a travel newsreel shot on color film stock. Before his having met Greta Garbo, the photography of Clarence Sinclair Bull had been published in periodicals under the name Clarence S. Bull. During 1922, Picture-Play magazine ran his portraits of Helen Chadwick and Claire Windsor; in 1923 his portraits of Mae Busch and Mabel Ballin.  His portrait of Colleen Moore had appeared in Screenland Magazine in 1922

"The Great Garbo talks- and remains great! A faultlessly directed picture with superb characterizations by Garbo, Charles Bickford, Marie Dressler and George Marion." - Photoplay


"The Garbo Voice. What will it sound like? The whole world waits to hear the Swedish enchantress for the first time in "Anna Christie" -Picture Play

George Marion, who starred with Greta Garbo in the film, had also played the same role, that of Anna's father Kris, in Thomas Ince's earlier silent version, starring Silent Film actress Blanche Sweet. In addition to his having filmed Anna Christie, in 1929 Greta Garbo photographer William Daniels was cinematographer to the films Their Own Desire and Wise Girls (Kempy (eleven reels), both directed by E. M. Hopper. Other romances that actor Charles Bickford had appeared in before filming with Greta Garbo were to include South Sea Rose and Dynamite; to end the silent era he had co-authored the play The Cyclone Lover

 Film historian and theorist Leo Braudy has written, "The lighting that William Daniels created for Garbo's early silent films rendered her more erotic than any spoken dialouge." That is not to say that that is the extent of his contribution to film history; Daniels had been trained on several of Von Strohiem's important films, beginning with Blind Husbands in 1919 and continued in Hollywood passed the 1939 film Ninotchka untill 1970.

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"There are many things in your heart you can never tell to another person. They are you. Your joys and sorrows- and you can never, never tell them. It is not right that you should tell them. You cheapen yourself, the inside of yourself when you tell them" Silent Film actress Greta Garbo, Photoplay Magazine
While waiting for the release of Anna Christie, Picture Play magazine included a portrait of Greta Garbo taken by Clarence Sinclair Bull. Edwin Schallert wrote, "Greta Garbo has demanded her private life. She has gone to the extreme even exacting it within the studio itself...Garbo has pursued the same phantom. The ordinary news gatherer, and even a majority of the extraordinary, are not permitted on her set. It is told that once even some of Swedish countrymen of the press came to visit her and were ritzed, or felt they were." With the superlative photography of Clarence Sinclair Bull, Greta Garbo inherited Photoplay Magazine author Katherine Albert, who summarized her writing during 1931 by herself paraphrasing her "I'm bored with Garbo", her looking for and at sensation differently with the articles "Did Brown and Garbo Fight" and "Exploding the Garbo Myth", the former concerned with "the carefully guarded, walled in stage where Greta Garbo was starring in Inspiration, the latter making an event of Greta Garbo objecting to a line of dialog on the set of the film Romance including a photo-caption that read, "The writer, who knows her, says there is no mystery about" After explaining how successful, artisticly, the work of Clarence Brown and Greta Garbo had been, it asks what had happenned during the film Inspiration, "The piece is an adaption of Sappho. The book is now old-fashioned. So is the play. A new script had to be written and neither Garbo nor Brown were entirely satisfied, but there was nothing to do but experiment on the set and se how it read. In order to get anything out of it they must rehearse and rehearse and change and change. That's where the trouble began. Garbo would not rehearse."
Photoplay magazine qualified iteslf in 1935 by quoting its own prediction in its August 1930 issue that had announced, "There is quite a definite rumor that Garbo's next picture will be 'Camille', by telling its readers that it would again print the exact same thing. Interest in Greta Garbo certainly continued as silent film was being shelved, shelved in fact almost in its entirety, and the interest continued for Ruth Biery, who published the article The Garbo Jinx on Her Leading Men in Photoplay Magazine during 1932. The photocaption read, "They were overshadowed by the Garbo jinx" and it included a list of Greta Garbo's leading men, "Garbo has proved to be an absolute jinx to eleven of the twelve men who have been her screen loves in the sixteen single starring pictures she has made since she came to this country. Look down the list of Garbo's leading men. Recall what happenned..." She included Richardo Cortez, Antonio Moreno, John Gilbert, Lars Hanson (who returned to Sweden), Conrad Nagel, Nils Asther, Gavin Gordon and then the author departs into Robert Montgomery "And Clark Gable. You saw him at his worst in 'Susan Lenox.'" Journalist Ruth Biery also brought Greta Garbo another Photoplay Cover; during 1932 Biery, who Garbo may apparently have declined to speak with, added another facet to the extra-textural discourse that was keeping the off-screen Greta Garbo secretive, enigmatic, "She spent many hours giving me the material. I was fascinated by her sincerity, her warm earthly qualities; her utter lack of affectation. After my story was printed, she said to me, 'I do not like your story. I do not like to see my soul bare upon paper." Beiry's answer was seems as though it is in her opinion, a bombshell- Hollywood had not been fair to Greta Garbo. She profiled four men whom she thought had been kind to her, Stiller, Lon Chaney, Jack Gilbert. Jack Gilbert is credited as have kept her in the limelight but out of public view, "He told her not to pose for pictures, which she did not understand and did not like, not to talk to interviewers if it made her nervous." 

Motion Picture magazine during the release of Susan Lennox, Her Rise and Fall was explicit; it published a portrait of Garbo by Clarence Sinclair Bull with the caption "The One- and Only" Underneath read: "There's only one gown in the world like this, just as there is only one Greta Garbo. It was designed by Adrian." Photoplay journalist Amelia Cummings in 1933 queried "Is the Garbo Rage Over?" with the subtitle, "Can the popularity that the world is eagerly curious about be on the wane?" During 1932 it was well within the knowledge of "all the more studious Garbo fanatics" (Picture Play Magazine) that Greta Garbo was on screen with Clark Gable, "Thier attraction for each other is understandable, their antagonism predestined, and their desperate reunion at the end of the picture holds no hope of tranquility." Picture Play magazine thought highly of Garbo, adding, "Nor does she triumph in spite of her picture. It is strong, entirely worthy of her.."

     Paul Rotha hesitates. In his second quickly penned masterwork on the advent of the new art form of sound film, Celluloid Today, which had followed on the heels of Film Till Now, the film critic, while lamenting the death of silent film director F.W. Murnau, appraises the need for suitable roles for Greta Garbo, by then one of the greatest actresses, after having had been being paired with Gilbert, of the silent era. He calmly includes the film Anna Christie among a trio of films that accordingly are brilliant for the visual expression in their opening scene, but lapse into pure dialogue insufficient to explain character.
Writer Louise Lagterstrom in fact characterized the successful transition on the part of Greta Garbo that marked her continuing from a silent actress to a star of talking pictures by titling her webpage for the Swedish Film Institute "Nya roller".
     Journalist Ralph Wheelwritght reviewed the film Mata Hari for Photoplay magazine, "Announcements of the co-starring assingment for Mata Hari sounded signal guns for rumors, conjecture and prognostication of all description..Those who have seen Miss Garbo about the lot during the making of the picture commented upon the gorgeousness of her costume, her unruffled contentment." The author mentions that her co-star had only met Greta Garbo socially on one or two occaisions, "On her dressing room table that morning, Garbo found a huge mound of pink roses." He had sent a card reading, "I hope that the world will be as thrilled to see Mata Hari as I am to work with her- Ramon Novarro".
     Katherine Albert later that year outdid herself with the 1932 article, "How Garbo's Fear of People Started". Cal York was needed for the next glance at Greta Garbo, his quickly dismissing the opinion that she and Barrymore could not work together. "John Barrymore and Greta Garbo instantly warmed to each other...She worked as never before studio associates say. No rehearsal was too arduous; no camera angle too difficult to figure out." During 1932 Picture Play magazine included another portrait from Clarence Sinclair Bull- it began by using the word Dazzling in huge letters beneath a still from the yet to be released Mata Hari, which was followed by the portrait by Clarence Sinclair Bull with the phrase "Good News" in large letters, beside which was the caption, "Oh calm these fears, ye fans whose numbers comprise an army greater than the world has ever known- Greta Garbo is not retiring from the screen." It followed that with another movie still beneath which were the words "At Last!" in large letters with the caption, "Garbo finds a happy ending in As You Desire Me. Of the film Mata Hari it had held, "Certainly it is streching a point say that the picture frequently drags, that the story of a female spy is shallow fiction."
     Fritiof Billquist, the author of Garbo, A Biography was in Sweden during 1932, starring with Gun Holmquist in the film Landskamp, directed by Gunnar Skoglund.
      During 1933 Motion Picture magazine left the explanation of the mystery of Greta Garbo to journalist
Sven Nordstrom, who penned the article Garbo- Now it Can Be Told,"her desire to go on stage is intense...Garbo not only wants to go on stage; she wants to play the most exacting roles ever created- roles written by the dour, morbid, compelling Henrik Ibsen. She would like to interpret every drama, every tragedy he wrote...After ibsen, the playwright whose drama most appeals to her is August Strindberg, also a Scandinavian, also a realist. She would like to do his play The Red Room.
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The whereabouts of Greta Garbo was in most ways far from being kept as secret during 1936; according to Photplay Magazine, Garbo owned a villa in Nyokoping, Sweden and was celebrating her thirtieth birthday. During 1937 it confidently mentioned, "Garbo will make another picture instead of a trip to Sweden". The Swedish Film Institute (Svenska Filminstitutet), which provides an extensive cataloging of the history of Swedish silent film from its earliest beginnings to present, is thorough in its filmography of Greta Garbo, thorough enough to list her having been included in the film The Romance of Celluloid (Celluloidens romantik), made in 1937.
     1937 was a year in which during which Photoplay was still providing biographical data on the elusive Garbo, "She phoned to the Grove and asked for the maitre d'hotel...Garbo herself flung the door open to his knock. She was evidently "in the pink"...Since the day Stiller left Hollywood, heart broken by his failure, Garbo never revisited Coconut Grove.
     Ruth Waterbury was so thrilled with her performance that while praising the actress's performance of death scenes in Camille (Kameliadamen, George Cukor, 1937) suggested that Greta Garbo star in "Marie Anoinette, "if Shearer decides not to make it." A photocaption in the article reads, "Garbo, entering her eleventh year as a star. She had to die- to live more glamourously than ever." It announced that she would soon appear in the film Countess Walewska wearing a new type of jockey cap, which would have a "deep long bill hanging down in front."
     Warner Oland returned to Stockholm in 1938 and, just as those who had known Mauritz Stiller in the United States  had heard the news of his death, Oland passed away in Scandinavia before finishing the film Charlie Chan at Ringside.


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